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为什么印度基础设施如此落后?

2018-01-15 | 分类:经济 | 评论:2人

Why is the Indian infrastructure so backwards despite the democracy they seem so proud of?

为什么印度基础设施如此落后,尽管他们有引以为傲的民主?

【美版知乎quora网贴翻译】

Subodh Mathur, Adjunct Professor of Economics at American University (2014-present)
Answered Tue
You should have seen India’s infrastructure when India became independent in 1947. For example, India’s total electricity generation capacity in 1947 was about 1.5 gigawatts. Today, India’s capacity is way over 300 GW. In 1947, even my parents – educated and better-off, did not have electricity in their home. Today, the majority of Indians have electricity in their homes.
Is India’s power sector in great shape? No, it is not. But, it is far better than neighbor Pakistan. And India is helping Bangladesh. Still a distance to go, but India is moving, including on renewable energy.

你应该了解印度1947年独立时的基础建设,例如,1947年印度总发电量约为15千兆瓦,今天,印度发电量已经超过了300兆瓦。1947年,即使受过教育、家庭富裕的父母,家里也没用上电。今天,印度大多数人家里都有电了。

印度电力行业状况良好吗?不,但比邻国巴基斯坦好多了。印度也正帮助孟加拉国。印度还有一段路要走,但印度正在前进,可再生能源也有了进展

There were hardly any telephones in 1947. After the cellphone revolution, even poor people have phones. As in the US, personal postal mail is declining in India also.
Roads were non-existent in 1947, specially to villages. Many roads have been built – but not enough to keep up with increasing population and increasing prosperity. More people want to travel more often by road. India needs to do better.
Flying by plane? In 1947? Out of question. Now India has many private local airlines. Is it enough? No. India needs to do better.

1947年时,印度几乎没有电话。手机革命后,即使穷人也用上了电话。如美国一样,个人邮件在印度也逐渐式微。

1947年,印度没有公路,尤其是农村。修了很多路,但还不足以跟上人口增长和繁荣的步伐。更多的人希望出行有便捷的公路。印度这方面需要改善。

坐飞机?1947年,没的说。现在印度有很多私人航空公司。这够了吗?不够,印度需要做更好。

Railways? The trains are much faster. Narrow gauge has been removed. Steam engines are gone. Is it enough? No – but it’s getting better every year. Again, more people want to travel more often by train. Hard to keep up.
Yes, China has done better than India. But, India will not give up democracy for China-style government. India needs to do a better job, even though it has done a reasonable job. Democracy has not come in the way. Roads have to be built in order to get votes. Same for electricity. Elections and infrastructure are intertwined.
13.2k Views · 829 Upvotes

铁路?火车跑得更快了。窄轨铁路被拆掉,蒸汽机一去不复返。够了吗?不够,每年都在变好。而且,更多人想要乘坐火车旅行。很难跟上(增长步伐)。

中国的确做得比印度好,但印度不会放弃民主而选择中国模式。印度需要更进一步,即使已经做得很不错了。民主不是阻碍。为了获得选票,需要修路,电力也如此。选举和基础设施是联系一起的。

 

Asheesh Gupta, former Logistics
Answered Jan 7
Infrastructure and democracy are two different things. That’s like saying why my popcorns are not crispy when I have a great coffee machine.
However, point to be noted, is the reason you asked this question is because you lack democracy and jealous of it.

基础设施和民主是两码事,这好比问,为什么我的咖啡机很棒,但我的爆米花却不脆呢?

你问这个问题是因为你们木有民主,嫉妒我们民主。

 

Tejesh Sager, Indian by thought and birth
Answered Tue
India has achieved a lot since Independence, countries that started with are worse than us. We could have definitely done better by sacrificing some privileges that only come with Democracy, but for now the people of our Nation don’t think slow growing Infrastructure is a compelling reason to sacrifice Democracy or tweak it a bit.

自独立以来,印度已经取得了不菲的成就。我们本可以牺牲一些民主特权而做得更好

 

Venkatesh Balaji, lives in Sacramento, CA
Answered Wed
Not true that Democracy is hampering Infrastructure growth
Let me give you a example where democracy has in fact helped growth of infrastructure in India.

民主并不是基础设施发展缓慢的阻碍。

我举个例子给你,民主实际上帮助了印度基础设施的发展。

(注:例子太长,略了。大意=印度某邦大停电,造成人民生活困境,承诺解决问题的政党赢得了大选,并最终改善当地的电力产业。)

There is still long way to go for India before it attains ideal infrastructure required for billion people. The point is we are getting there eventually. We are not as good as other countries like US, China, Japan Europe. We certainly are far better than what we were in past. We are making giant strides, still not good enough for billion people.

要满足十亿人理想的基础设施需求,印度仍有很长一段路要走。关键是,我们最终会实现这点。没有做得跟美国、中国、日本、欧洲那样,但是比以前更好,我们正取得巨大的进步,但仍不足以让十亿人受益。

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  1. 滚轮
    Post:2018/01/16 01:15:45

    可更多的时候,民主是基建的阻碍。比如美国纽约第二地铁,就建了100年,还只有两公里。主要是每个人都有自己的看法,每次审批都要反反复复,导致不能顺利进行建立。而且,有些人为了当领导人,不惜欺骗选民,特朗普一个,蔡英文一个,还有好多人。必须要有铁腕手段的人当领导人才会顺利进行基建,比如罗斯福。可是这样又会被人说,而且民主情况又不能阻止别人干扰你进行活动。

  2. 五美分
    Post:2018/01/16 11:44:12

    没有对比,就没有伤害!为什么,我们喜欢和美国比,因为我们觉得自己能超越美国,吾可取而代之!印度,整天和中国比,两国其实很相似,所以伤害出来了!我们和美国比,开始伤害更大,现在的印度大巫见小巫!后来,起来了,自信了,现在我们敢说:美国也不过如此!

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