当前位置:首页 > 文化 > 正文内容

为什么中国让大量学生出国留学?

2018-01-14 | 分类:文化 | 评论:5人

How come China lets a lot of its students go abroad?

中国为什么让大量学生出国?

【美版知乎quora问答】

Hyunwoo Kim, politics and ethics DPhil(PhD) at Oxford University
Answered Dec 29
I’m one of the hundreds of thousands of Chinese students studying abroad. I come from a fairly humble background with my family living in the periphery of China where the economy is lagging behind. I’m also one of the ethnic minorities in China which are just struggling to catch up with many Han Chinese living in a more prosperous region. So I think I count as one of a number of ‘ordinary students’ from China going abroad for study who can speak up for themselves.

译文来源:Quora中文网 http://quora123.com/615.html

我是成千上万在国外留学的中国学生之一。
我出身普通家庭,我家位于中国经济很落后的地区。
我也是一名少数民族,努力赶上繁华地区的汉族。
我是中国留学生中的“普通一员”,可以代表他们。

To answer your question briefly, it’s a formal policy and established tradition since Deng’s opening-up era to encourage Chinese students to go abroad and bring back home the knowledge and information that China desperately needs in various fields of industry. Back in the 1980s and early 90s, most of Chinese students were funded by the Chinese government. It is said that Deng signed up to the idea that as long as there is one in ten students that intends to come back and contribute to China, then funding the students would be worth it as China needs talents for its modernisation and one is better than none. Even if students choose to stay overseas in the end, they’ll be involved with China in one way or another, which is also a good thing by itself. And it’s better for dissenters who hold contempt for the communist regime to stay abroad rather than come back to China making troubles for the regime. So the Chinese regime has no particular reason to worry about dissenting students coming back to make troubles.

简单回答,这是邓小平改革开放以来的政策和传统,鼓励中国学生走出国门,带回中国各行各业需要的知识和信息。80年代末期和90年代初,大多数中国留学生由政府出资,据说,邓小平的观点是,只要有十分之一的学生回来,为中国做贡献,那投资学生就值得了,因为中国现代化需要人才,有胜于无。即使留学生最终选择留在海外,他们也会以另一种方式参与中国(事务),这本身是件好事。对那些GCD反对者而言,不回国制造麻烦也是更好的选择。因此,中国没必要担心那些回来的学生添麻烦。

From the late 1990s on, the number of self-funded students began to increase at a dramatic pace and they have by now become the majority of Chinese students abroad. This of course relates to the fact that some Chinese became rich thanks to the economic reform and they began to feel capable of funding their children’s study abroad. As many answers pointed out here, students who are able to support their study themselves are more likely to come from rich families which are beneficiaries of China’s economic reform and they just live by the success stories of China. Although it’s too simplistic to assume that students from a rich background would turn a deaf ear to what the Chinese government is being accused of—and indeed, many so-called ‘elite’ students do have some mixed, or even critical, views of their government, it’s fair enough to say that they would be less critical of the regime than, say, poor youths who are just struggling to sustain their livelihood in the peripheries of China.

90年代后期开始,自费留学生开始以惊人速度增加,他们目前已成为了海外中国留学生的大多数。当然,这与中国因为经济改革而变得富裕有关系,他们开始觉得有能力资助孩子出国留学。正如很多这里的回答指出的那样,有能力自费出国的留学生可能来自富裕家庭,这些家庭是经济改革的受益者。

事实上,很多所谓的“精英”学生对政府有复杂甚至批判的看法,公平地说,他们对政府的批评会比在国内挣扎着维持生计的人要少。

There are also some aspects of Chinese communities abroad worth mentioning here. First, Chinese students tend to prefer staying among fellow students to mingling with foreign students, which makes them technically incapable of making sense of Western values in their own right. It’s just like living inside a bubble which sets up a cordon sanitaire between the Chinese living inside and foreigners living outside. You may encounter Chinese students on a daily basis but they live in their own world. There is a fence that separates them from the outside world.

海外华人社区也有一些方面值得一提。首先,中国学生更喜欢呆在本国同学之间,而不是与外国学生打成一片。这使得他们无法理解西方价值观。就像生活在泡泡中,将住在里面的中国人和外面的外国人间竖起了一道警戒线。你可能每天都能遇到中国学生,但他们只活在自己的世界里。有一道墙将他们与外面的生活隔开。

This is not to deny that there’re indeed many Chinese who like to say hi to, say, Brits or Americans and learn about exotic cultures, and it’s more common for undergrads than for graduate students. But China has a distinct culture of its own powerful enough to sustain its own social values. This system of values encompasses everything ranging from Wechat, Alipay, Chinese songs and pop culture to cuisine, lifestyle and family values. It’s not something that one born and raised in mainland China can comfortably do away with. There is a kind of chemistry that mainland Chinese students can share with one another that foreigners, even Taiwanese who speak the same language, cannot easily get at. This may be due to the longevity and complexity of Chinese civilisation or China’s distinct social and political experience since the communist party took power, but anyway, Chinese students buy into this sense of chemistry

不可否认,的确有很多中国人喜欢和英国人或美国人打招呼,学习异国文化,相比研究生,这种情况在大学生中更普遍。中国有自己足够强大的独特文化,以维持自身的社会价值。这套价值体系涵盖了从微信、支付宝、中国歌曲和流行文化,到美食、生活方式和家庭价值观等方方面面。这是在中国大陆出生长大的人不可轻易放弃的东西。这是中国大陆学生能彼此分享的一种化学物质,外国人,甚至同一语言的台湾人都难以理解。

这或许是因为中国文明或中国自GCD掌权后独特的社会和政治经历,无论如何,中国学生拥有了这种化学物质。

Second, partly due to the first point, Chinese students tend to gloss over problems with their own government very quickly as if there is nothing fundamentally wrong. They see things from their own perspectives from their own bubbles, so it’s no wonder that any critique of the Chinese re*me turns out to be a futile and desperate effort to tear apart the ‘deeply cherished motherland’. For instance, Brexit itself seems to be enough reason for them to reject Western-style democracy as democracy brings about not so wise a result, so as it stands. They’ll not really get into the details about democracy such as the moral justifications of democracy and it’s also difficult for them to appreciate the extent to which equal citizenship has been built into Western philosophy and the contemporary world that, not only Westerners, but Chinese, inhabit. As an example, there is a link, as is pointed out by many analytic philosophers today, between people’s equal status being public affirmed and the democratic rationale.

第二,部分因为第一点,中国学生更倾向于迅速掩盖本国政府的问题,好像根本没什么错误一样。他们看待事物都是从自己的角度、自己的泡沫里出发,难怪任何对中国的批判都成徒劳,成了撕裂“对祖国深深的眷恋”的孤注一掷。

例如,英国脱欧于他们而言,似乎成了拒绝西方式民主的充分理由,因为民主带来的结果似乎没那么明智,正如它代表的那样。他们不会真正了解民主细节,他们也很难理解公民平等已经被纳入西方哲学的程度,包括纳入了当代世界,不仅是西方人,而且是住在那里的华人。

My sense is that they aren’t willing nor ready to take up the task of making sense of the complex relationship between ideas of freedom, democracy and justice on the one hand, and social and political problems in China taking place here and now on the other. It’s worth noting that the first generations of Chinese students who later went on to become prominent figures in Chinese history—such as Gu Weijun (minister of foreign relations in the Nationalist Government), Zhou enlai (Prime Minister of PRC) and Qian Zhongshu (writer and linguist)—spared no effort availing themselves of resources overseas in thinking about the modern crisis with which China was faced. Now, more and more students tend to believe, or fool themselves to believe, that this problem has been solved once and for all by China’s economic story.

我感觉,他们一方面既不愿意也不打算承担理解思想自由、民主和正义之间的关系的任务,另一方面还有中国此时发生的社会、政治问题。值得注意的是,第一代后来成为中国历史名人的中国留学生,如顾维钧(国民党政府外交部长)、周恩来和钱钟书等,不遗余力地利用本身在海外获得的资源,思考中国面临的现代危机。现在,越来越多的学生倾向于相信或欺骗自己,这个问题已经被中国经济彻底解决了。

Third, I’m afraid there is a third element at play here. One of the reasons the Chinese re*me doesn’t worry too much about overseas students bringing home a positive depiction of the Western world is that racial and cultural discriminations are still a huge problem in the Western world and the awful experience Chinese students had during their study may easily convince them that the West is marred by various kinds of discrimination that don’t exist in China. I’m not exaggerating here and discrimination can take many forms. The waiter may not do some proper welcoming gesture to you as she does to Caucasian-looking customers; As an Asian, it’s more likely for you to get shouted at by a drunkard than if you’re White-looking; among all tenants, you may be picked out and warned of not messing the kitchen up just because you’re Chinese and Chinese have ‘dirty cooking habits’. I think many Chinese students experience this or that in one way or another. Sometimes the discrimination and injustice suffered by Asians is so awful that some good aspects of the society they live in are all literally gone, leaving them with a dreadful memory of how they get treated. Since democracy and freedom have not made my personal, day-to-day living better in this country than in my home country, what reason do I have to give a positive rating of it?

第三个起作用的原因。中国不担心留学生回国后带来对西方世界的积极描绘的原因之一是,种族歧视和文化歧视仍是西方世界的一大问题,而中国学生在留学过程中所经历的可怕经历,使他们很容易相信,西方世界正被在中国并不存在的歧视破坏着。

我并非夸大其词,歧视有很多种形式。服务员或许对你不大热情。比起白人,作为亚洲人,你更可能被醉汉大吼大叫;在所有租户中,你可能会被点出并警告不要弄脏厨房,因为你是中国人,中国人有“肮脏的烹饪习惯”。我认为中国留学生或多或少都会经历这样的事情。有时候亚洲人遭遇的歧视和不公正如此可怕,以至于他们所生活的社会一些好的方面都消失了,留下了他们被对待的不好回忆。既然民主和自由并没有使我在这个国家生活得比在祖国更好,为什么我要对它积极评价呢?

 

Michael Zheng
Updated Jan 3
A funny thing actually happened, Chinese people that lived overseas are actually equal to or more patriotic than people that only lived in China. The reason is that they’ve seen and experienced the freedom and democracy of the “more advanced” Western countries first hand, and decided that Communist China is actually a better fit for them, so they returned.
This wasn’t always the case. In the 80’s and 90’s, vast majority of Chinese students would never return to China after their studies. Today, the situation is reversed. There’s a bit of irony in the freedom of choice.

实际上,住海外的中国人实际上比住国内的人更爱国。理由是,他们见证并体验过西方国家“更先进”的自由和民主,并认为共产主义中国更适合他们,所以他们回来了。

情况并非总如此,八、九十年代,大多数留学生在学习后都不回国。今天,情况扭转。选择的自由有点讽刺。

 

Pengzhen Huang, PhD of UK and China
Answered Dec 26
Believe me, China is a confident nation. I’m sure that the extent of this confidence surpasses the limits of your imagination.

信我,中国是个自信的国家。这种自信程度超出你的想象。

A lot of students who once studied abroad, become more and more patriotic and are eager to come back home. I DO. I don’t want to study abroad any more if it is not very necessary. It’s a complex feeling and hard to explain. It’s not only loving this country more and more, but understanding this ancient, glorious, wounded and now powerful motherland deeper and deeper. I become more proud of her long, more heart-struck about her modern history, and more hopeful about her future. I’m not lucky enough to join and see her past, so I don’t want to miss any moment of her future. It is all of us, all of Chinese, who are building the future.

很多曾在海外留学的学生,变得越来越爱国,渴望回到家乡。我就是。如果没必要,我再也不想留学了。这是种难以解释的复杂感觉。不仅是更爱国家,而且更深层次地了解祖国的古老、荣耀、曾经的伤痛和现在的强大。我越发为祖国的悠久而自豪,为她的现代史而悲痛,为她的未来充满希望。我运气不够不足以参与见证她的过去,但我不想错过她未来的任何时刻。那是我们,所有的中国人,都在建设的未来。

Westerns have their own rules, so do we. I don’t want same.
I don’t care about your so-called freedom, democracy. We have them too.
Maybe you can’t understand if you are not a Chinese.
12.7k Views · 595 Upvotes

西方人有自己的规则,我们也有,我不希望相同。
我不在乎你们所谓的自由、民主。这些我们也有。
如果你不是个中国人,你或许无法理解。

来源:Quora中文网(微信号/QQ号:),转载请注明出处和链接!

  • 评论:(5)

已有 5 位网友发表了一针见血的评论,你还等什么?

◎欢迎参与讨论,我的微信公众号是:santaihu

  1. 五美分
    Post:2018/01/14 17:33:52

    观点还可以,不过有点偏激了!
    当时,人才匮乏,外派留学生是最快速的办法,也是对官僚阶级的一种补偿!其实,外派留学生,大概七成是真材实料,剩下的都是关系户,这个是潜规则!
    原因很多,但是利大于弊,虽然开始回来的很少,但是愿意回来的都是牛人,时势造英雄!后来,经济腾飞,再回来就是锦上添花,成就有限!我们国家是重视感情的民族,只要帮过祖国的,祖国绝对不会亏待的,即使一下犯了错误,子女也受到照顾……

  2. 🤐
    Post:2018/02/07 16:55:06

    其实我感觉这个网站有些倾向 很多都是中国人的话 他们把中文翻译成英文 然后你们又翻译回来 蛤蛤 怎么感觉有点讽刺啊

  3. wing
    Post:2018/02/11 20:53:03

    虽然出国少,英文讲得不错。常常同一些外国人聊天,让我越来越爱国,通过他人了解自己国家吧。以前不能用英语沟通的时候,感觉自己并没有那么爱国。

  4. jay
    Post:2018/05/22 11:57:06

    中国要统治世界!!!哈哈233

  5. 锋利的刀
    Post:2018/08/16 17:28:35

    那是我们所有中国人正在建设的未来,我不想错过。这句把我看哭了。人是群居动物,对于自己的部族都有自然生发的归属感。且难以磨灭。

站内搜索