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为何日韩对海外日韩人轻微排斥;中国却对海外华人抱着“表亲”态度?

2017-12-16 | 分类:文化 | 评论:0人

Why do both Japan and Korea seem slightly xenophobic against overseas Japanese/Koreans, where as the Chinese seem to have an attitude of ‘welcome home my long lost cousin’?

为何日韩对海外日韩人轻微排斥;中国却对海外华人抱着“表亲”态度?

【美版知乎Quora网贴翻译】

Robin Daverman, Foodie
Updated 2h ago
Because Japan and Korea have been “feudal” in the European-sense for the last 2,000 years. Both of them have bloodline-based aristocracies ruling their countries. The Emperor of Japan boasts an uninterrupted bloodline since 600 BC (Emperor Jimmu), and in Korea, most of their aristocratic families have 500+ years of history.
Wherever you have this kind of bloodline-based aristocracy for thousands of years, you have this cultural notion of “the goodness of the purity of the blood”, and with it, a clear dividing line between “us” and “them” that expands beyond pure genetics and into the realm of culture and customs. Thus the slightly xenophobic attitude.

在过去2000年里,日韩一直是欧洲意义里的“封建”。双方都有以血统为基础的贵族统治国家。自公元前600年起,日本天皇就保持着不间断的血统;而韩国的贵族有500多年的历史。

无论你在哪里有这种几千年的贵族血统,你都会有“纯血统优良”的传统观念,有了这点,在“他们”和“我们”之间就有了明显的分界,这超越纯粹的基因,进入了文化习俗的领域。因此会出现轻微的排外态度。

This is no different from what exists in most of the Western culture today! A Pole can live in the Great Britain for three generations and still a Pole. Think about it. The Star War movies? Totally feudal with the “special power” passed down the bloodline; Harry Potter? Inherited “special power”; Lord of the Rings? Only Sons of Kings need apply. This is a reflection of the past 1,000+ years of the aristocratic feudal society. The cultural echo chamber. And all these stories are basically the same: “I’m the pre-destined hero by blood, and some bad guy is out to get me for no reason, just because.” People dig this. This is the way it’s supposed to be.

这点与今天的大多数西方文化没什么不同!一个波尔(家族)在英国生活三代,仍是波尔(家族)。想一下,《星战》?封建地通过血统传递的“特殊力量”;《哈利波特》?继承“特殊力量”;《指环王》?只有王的儿子才有资格。这反应了过去千年贵族封建社会。这些故事都基于同样的东西:“我是血统命定的英雄”。

The Chinese don’t really dig this. They simply don’t have the history of “pre-destined hero by blood” or “some bad dude is out to get me for no reason”. Because they have a completely different history. China hasn’t been “feudal” in the European sense for thousands of years. She officially got rid of her aristocracy during the Han dynasty in 200 BC, with the governing power transferred to scholarly commoners who rose through the ranks, starting from the Imperial examination. So the “Blue Blood” lost all attraction when they were forbidden to have power, and they were demonstratively more stupid than those Cabinet Ministers who came out of the Imperial Examination system. So the hot new scholars became the great “catch”, and those “Blue Blood” (who were only allowed to marry commoners by Ming Dynasty) became toxic assets in the marriage market. Whoever married them lost their potential future with real power.

中国人没真正探究这点,他们只是没有“血统命定的英雄”这样的历史,他们有着完全不同的历史。几千年来,中国没有欧洲意义上的“封建”。公元前200年的汉代时期,她正式摆脱了贵族统治,统治权移交给了那些通过科举考试晋升上来的平民学士。因此,当权力被禁止时,贵族血统就失去了吸引力,而且他们明显比那些出身科举考试的内阁大臣们更蠢。

因此,热门的新晋学士成了重要的“适婚对象”,而拥有“贵族血统”(到了明代才允许与平民结婚)的人成了婚姻市场上的“有毒资产”,谁与他们成婚,就失去了为了获得真正权力的可能。

Secondly a lot of China’s own emperors rose from commoners, even the bottom of the society. Like the founder of the Han Dynasty in ~ 200 BC was this village scoundrel-turned local postal officer, and the founder of the Ming dynasty around 1,400 AD was a little orphaned beggar turned monk turned bandit. Even he himself didn’t know who his parents were. If those dudes were into “blue blood”, they wouldn’t be the emperors. They would have no legitimacy to be there! So the Chinese aren’t into this “bloodline” thingy, at all. In fact, they are a bit militantly against this “blue blood” concept.

第二,很多中国皇帝都是平民出身,即使是社会底层。像汉朝建立者,公元前200年前是乡镇邮差,公元1400年左右的明朝建立者,从孤儿变成乞丐,又变成和尚,强盗。甚至他自己都不知道父母是谁。如果这些人是“贵族血统”,他们不会成为皇帝。他们根本没有合法性!所以中国人一点也不喜欢“血统论”。事实上,他们强烈反对“贵族血统”论。

Thirdly, China is not an island or a narrow peninsula. It sits on the biggest continent, and it got into contact with a lot of other people, other tribes, other races. That’s just a geographical certainty. Northern Wei Dynasty in ~ 400 AD was founded by Turkic people (Xianbei), Tang Dynasty in ~ 800 AD was founded by a Han/Turkic hybrid, Yuan dynasty in ~ 1300 AD was founded by Mongols, and the last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty in ~ 1600 AD, was founded by Manchus. With this kind of history, being xenophobic and going all-superior is kinda impossibly silly, don’t you think? When it’s like half of their own emperors were foreign- or hybrid-origin? So what really happened was that everybody hybridized with each other like rabbits, and “now we are all one family”! That does the trick! Now there are officially 56 ethnicities in China, and the vast majority of them all look the same! The difference in clothing style lasted longer than the difference in biological appearance. Who’d have thought!

第三,中国不是岛屿也不是狭窄的半岛。中国位于最大的大陆上,与很多部落和其他种族接触。这只是地理上的必然。公元400年的北魏由鲜卑人建立;公元1300年的元朝由蒙古人建立,公元1600年的清朝由满族人建立。有这样的历史,当他们的皇帝有一半的是外来或混血时,排外和优越感,你不觉得有点蠢吗?真正发生的是,每个人都像兔子一样杂交,然后“我们都是同一个家族”!这很管用!现在中国有56个民族,大多数民族看起来一样!服装差异比生物外观差异更持久。谁能想到!

So the “China-ness” is not defined by race or ethnicity. It simply can’t be when practically everybody is a hybrid. The enduring thingy is the Culture, ditto “civilization state”. China as a “Civilization-State”: A Historical and Comparative Interpretation In fact, many Chinese tend to believe that hybridization makes better babies, so a touch of “foreignness” can be sort of exciting. Go figure!
5.3k Views · 267 Upvotes

所以,“中国人”不是种族或民族定义的,当每个人都是混血时,也不可能(用种族来定义)。持久的东西是文化,同理“文明国家”。中国是个“文明国家”:实际上,从历史角度和比较解释,很多中国人认为混血能生出更好的宝宝,所以有一点“外国血统”可能让人兴奋。

译文来源:Quora中文网 http://quora123.com/495.html

Akari Towada
Answered Wed
I can only speak for Japanese because I was born and raised in Japan.
Reason one: many overseas Japanese are Okinawans who are culturally more close to Chinese. And yes, overseas okinawans are welcomed in Okinawa.
Reason two: most Japanese intermarry local people where they live unlike the Chinese. For instance, the vast majority of the 3rd or 4th generation Japanese in Peru or Brazil look mestizo and speak only Spanish or Portuguese. You are considered Chinese by Chinese folks if your dad is of Chinese origin. Overseas Chinese men prefer to marry Chinese or women of East Asian background, so their kids will look oriental.

在日本出生长大,我只能说说日本人。

原因1:很多海外日本人是冲绳人,他们文化上更接近中国人。对,海外冲绳人在冲绳受欢迎。

原因2:大多数日本人与他们所生活的当地人通婚,而中国人不这样。例如,秘鲁和巴西的第3、4代日裔,大多数看起来都是混血儿,只说西班牙语或葡萄牙语。如果你爸是华人,你就会被当成华人。海外华人更愿意与华人或东亚背景的女人结婚,所以他们的孩子看起来像东方人。

Reason three: when Japanese move to another country and naturalize, they are seriously committed to their new country, not Japan. It means Japanese don’t easily give up their Japanese passports for convenience unlike the Chinese people.
These are the reasons Japanese citizens in Japan see overseas Japanese differently.
By the way, I am ethinically Okinawan and my family chose to live in Japan after WWII. I am often reminded by my family and relatives how important it is to fit in and how great Japanese culture is. They didn’t even pass on their native tongue.

原因3:当日本人到另一个国家并入籍时,他们严格地忠于他们的新国家,而不是日本。这意味着日本人不会像中国人那样轻易放弃日本护照。

这就是日本人看待海外日裔不同的原因。

另外,我是冲绳人,我和家人选择住在日本。我家人和亲人常提醒我,融入日本文化有多重要。他们甚至不会说母语。

来源:Quora中文网(微信号/QQ号:),转载请注明出处和链接!

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