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Quora:经济和社会发展中,哪些是中国对了而美国错了?

2017-10-25 | 分类:资讯 | 评论:1人

What did China get right in its economic and social development which the US got wrong?

经济社会发展中,哪些是中国对了而美国错了?

美版知乎quora网贴翻译:

译文来源:Quora中文网 http://quora123.com/265.html

Kris Lim, Overseas Chinese
Answered Mon
In the US, corporate interest shapes things. It shapes the media, it shapes policies, it influences military acquisitions, it lobbies politics. Arguably it is the free market, corporate dynamism and American exceptionalism that makes the US unique and uplifts the nation. This explains the US being the largest economy and the luxury of having the largest military spending, largest navy as well as having the two largest air forces in the world. However it doesn’t quite uplift society as a whole, with more than 10% of the population requiring food stamps.
In China the government decides the policies and path forward. Businessmen and the wealthy throw their weight and investments behind the government. If the government says to concentrate on green energy and AI, both public and private money would go in those directions. This is good as long as China can ensure that capable and altruistic leaders rise up their political ladder. It is harder to ensure corporate altruism in the US. Corporations spend and invest on what they think will generate returns for them.

在美国,企业利益造就一切,它造就了媒体、政策,影响军事收购,游说政治。可以说,是自由市场、企业活力、美国例外论成就了美国市场的独特,振奋了国家。这解释了美国是世界最大的经济体、军费开支最大、最庞大的海军以及两支最大的空军。然而,它并没有提升整个社会,10%的人口仍需要食物券。

在中国,政府决定了政策和前进道路。商人和富人以势力和资本支持政府。如果政府说要集中发展绿色能源和AI,那公共和私人资金都会集中到这些方向。只要中国能确保有能力、无私的领导上台就很好了。在美国要确保企业的利他主义更难。企业为能带给他们回报的事务花钱和投资。

In the US you can say whatever you want as an individual. Society then debate whether what you said is right or wrong and are left to deal with the repercussions of you saying or doing what you are free to do. In short society polices itself.
In China the government polices the individual for the greater good of society. Some in the US are starting to look at the merits of government control over issues such as fake news and foreign intervention on social media[1] [2].
The US believes that America is great and will naturally be so as long as the country and society is left to do what it has always done.

在美国,你作为个人想说什么就说什么,社会再讨论你说的是对是错,然后回答你说的或自由做的会有什么影响,再去处理。简而言之,社会管理自己。

中国,政府为社会更大的利益管理个人。在美国,一些人开始关注政府对如假新闻、外国干涉社媒的控制的好处。

美国相信美国是伟大的,天生如此,只要国家和社会尽其所能。

China believes that any country can be great but on condition that the right choices are made and wrong steps are avoided. China made the determination that technocrats should be in government and be the ones making the big decisions on behalf of China. They do not think that their way is the universal right way and should be copied by others. That’s behind the obsession with their ‘### with Chinese characteristics’ phrases. Whatever their policies chosen are due to being within their national, social & cultural constraints and circumstances. They don’t try to export what they think is right for them the way the US feels the need to export democracy or the American way.
Last, China doesn’t allow guns.

中国相信任何国家都能伟大,只要做出政策的选择,避免错误的步骤。中国决定,
技术官僚应该在政府内,并代表中国做出重大决定。他们不认为他们的方式是普遍正确的方式,应该被其他人模仿。这就是他们沉迷“中国特色XXX”句式的原因。无论他们选择什么决策,都是出于国家、社会、文化的约束和环境。他们不会试图输出他们认为对的东西,就像美国感觉需要出口他们的民主和方式的途径一样。

最后,中国禁枪。

 

Joseph Wang, studied at Ph.D Astronomy UT Austin, Physics MIT
Answered Sun
The three big things are:
China hasn’t invaded any other countries, and does not believe that it can run other countries better than the locals. The invasions in Afghanistan and Iraq have been expensive disasters.
After the 2008 financial crisis, just took a look and said “good grief, we have tens of millions of workers that are doing nothing and could protest and overthrow us. Let’s just get them to do stuff.” So you had massive infrastructure building.
The Chinese government really don’t beiieve that they have all the answers.

三件大事:

中国没有侵略其他国家,也不信它能比当地人更好地运营其他国家。入侵阿富汗和伊拉克是代价高昂的灾难。

2008年金融危机后,看了一眼并说:“天啊,我们有上千万工人,没什么事做,会抗议我们。让他们做点事吧。”所以你们有了大量的基础建设。

中国真的不相信自己拥有所有答案。

 

Craig Reynolds, works at Self-Employment
Answered Oct 16
China has taken the best parts of Communism, Socialism, Capitalism, and some Democratic principles. It has very smartly retained key sectors of the economy under government ownership (SOE’s) and not free market capitalism where they do not belong. IE: Energy, Mining, Telecommunications, Healthcare, Shipping, Transportation, Banking, Utilities and it’s military industrial complex.
This has allowed the government to generate revenues outside of just taxation, while also being able to maintain price controls and keep these area of the economy affordable.

中国拿到了共产主义、社会主义、资本主义和一些民主原则最好的一部分,聪明地保留了政府持有经济的关键部门(国有企业),而不是不属于他们的自由市场资本主义。例如:能源、矿业、电信、医疗、航运、交通、银行、公用事业和军工联合企业。

这让政府在税收之外能产生收入,同时能维持价格控制,并能负担起这些经济领域。

China also does NOT allow foreign businesses without a Chinese partner company and the Chinese partner must have majority (51%) control of the joint venture. In this way there is no chance for foreign multinationals to take control of the economy or for any foreign government to control them from the sidelines.
China’s in my opinion also does an excellent effort at cracking down on graft (corruption) and punishing the offenders severely. Usually with life sentences and if the graft is severe enough that it harms people they will even apply the death penalty.

中国也不允许外企在没有中国公司和伙伴的情况下,拥有合资企业的主要(51%)控制权。这样,外国跨国公司就没有机会控制经济,或让外国政府在局外控制它们。

在我看来,中国在打击贪污腐败方面也做了极好的努力。通常是无期徒刑;如果贪污严重到伤害人民,他们甚至会被判处死刑。

The US on the other hand has allowed the government to devolve into a form of corporatocracy controlled by deep pocketed Oligarchs. Basically the super rich and the corporations they control pull the strings in government. Over regulation makes it extremely difficult for individuals to start small businesses and taxation is excessive. Graft is widespread, but is practically legal in that the offenders are almost never pursued.
The US for decades has allowed manufacturers to move production to other countries where the cost of labor is extremely low and regulations, especially with regard to workers rights and safety are practically non existent. Basically allowing these companies to escape the expensive regulations the US itself imposes. This has damaged the economy by lowering wages and creating massive domestic job losses.

另一方面,美国允许权力下放到财力雄厚的寡头控制的公司。基本上,超级富豪以及他们控制的公司在幕后操控政府。过度监管使得个人创业极其困难,税收也过高。贪污是普遍存在的,但实际上是合法的,因为罪犯从未被追究。

几十年来,美国允许制造商将生产转移到其他国家去,这些国家劳动力成本极低,管理,特别是工人权利和安全方面,几乎不存在。基本上允许这些公司逃避美国对其强加的昂贵监管。通过降低工资和造成大量的国内失业,这已经损害了经济。

The US government rarely comes to a bipartisan agreement on anything and is often times practically dysfunctional. We spend an absurd amount of money, typically 50% of every annual budget on the military when our infrastructure is in disrepair, our schools lacking supplies and we have people that are hungry and homeless.
Before anyone tries to dispute that 50% military budget you better make sure you know what you are looking at. The government likes to include social security and medicare revenues as well as expenditures in the budget and that is misleading. It makes it look like those programs are the greatest expense when they are not. They are not because they have their own separate taxes that fund them. Once you remove them from the budget you will see that military is indeed 50% or more of all expenditures.

美国政府很少在任何事情上达成两党协议,经常不协调。我们花了大量钱在军事上,通常每个年度预算的50%,而我们的基础建设失修、学校缺乏、有人民饥饿且无家可归。

在任何人想反驳50%军费预算前,你最好确保你看的是什么。政府喜欢把社会保障和医疗保险收入和支出纳入预算中,这不对,使其看起来像是这些项目占了最大开支,实际上不是,因为有自己的独立的税收资助它们。但你从预算中移除,你会发现军事实际上占了所有支出的50%或更多。

来源:Quora中文网(微信号/QQ号:),转载请注明出处和链接!

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  1. gundam
    Post:2017/10/25 14:45:26

    这个翻译看起来很头痛。。

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